Imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking the parts in a survey. The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society is referred to as: The term Home sapiens, the name of our species, comes from Latin meaning: The United States is multicultural because: In this country many ways of life can be found, Anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture. In terms of human freedom, the chapter on socialization leads to the conclusion that: Human beings can never be free of society. A recent review by the Cochrane Collaboration has found that flexible working arrangements, such as flextime and telecommuting can have positive effects on health, but the effects are primarily seen when employees have some control over their new schedules.Additionally, individuals who telecommute to work most of the work week are more satisfied with their jobs than are traditional employees who commute into a physical office location. Oh no! Positivism has had relatively little influence on contemporary sociology because it is said to encourage a misleading emphasis on superficial facts without any attention to underlying mechanisms that cannot be observed. Wrongdoing, such as adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity, is an example of violating cultural: Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of the societies population, Judging another culture by the standards of ones own culture, T or F: symbols refer to anything that carries meaning recognized by people who share culture, T or F: Gestures such as thumbs-up are used in most societies of the world to signify that something is very good, Culture patterns strongly opposed to those that are widely excepted within a society, What concept refers to be lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture, In the nature versus nurture debate, sociologist claim that, Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freuds concept of, According to Piaget, and what stage of human development do individuals experience the world only through sensory contact, When Cooley used the concept looking-glass self he meant to say that, Self image is based on how we think others see you, Which of the following statements comes closest to describing Ericksons view of socialization, Personality formation is a lifelong process, T or F: Schools provide children with early experience of bureaucracy, Industrial societies typically defined people in old age as, In her research, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross found that death, Is an orderly transition involving 5 stages, T or F: the "ego" in Freud's model of personality is the same as "conscience", Summarize Freuds theory of human personality, The id, the ego, the superego. Science can be used to predict human behavior. The statement that the social world guide our actions and life choices just as the seasons influence activities and clothing describes: The essential wisdom of the discipline of sociology, Peter Berger described using the sociological perspective as seeing the ____ in the ___. because they provide information about a society's unwritten rules for social behavior The approach that says that in order to create an impression, people play roles and their performance is judged by other who are alert to any slips that might reveal the actor's true character. "An unverified statement of a relationship between variables" is the definition of which term? Drawing conclusions about all of humanity based on information drawn only from males describes the problem called: Which of the following is NOT found within the American Sociological Association's guidelines for ethical research? Question 8 Sociologists cannot precisely predict any person's behavior because: Selected Answer: All of the above are correct. The goal of this chapter is to introduce the methods employed by sociologists in their study of social life. C. Wright Mills pointed out that sociological awareness tends to be more widespread: Making use of the sociological perspective encourages: Sociology differs from earlier philosophy by focusing on: According to come, people begin to see society as a natural--rather than supernatural-- phenomenon as their society enters which stage of development? a. Question 13 The use of existing data and documents makes most historical research possible. Crimes can result from abnormal, dysfunctional or inappropriate mental processes within the individual’s personality. Taken together, the cases of Anna, Isabelle, and Bernie provides strong evidence that: A. social expensive has a crucial role in forming human personality. But sociology is frustrating for the same reason. It has its origins in the works of Emile Durkheim, who was especially interested in how social order is possible or how society remains relatively stable.As such, it is a theory that focuses on the macro-level of social structure, rather than the micro-level of everyday life. When sociologists apply the sociological perspective and begin to ask questions, no topic is off limits. Sociologists examine the world, see a problem or interesting pattern, and set out to study it. Our basic drives or need as humans are reflected in Freud's concept of: Cognition: how people think and understand. Transforming specific observations into general theory. The largest number of nations In the world ( about 90 of a total of 192) falls into which category? Sociologists cannot precisely predict any person's behavior because we are spontaneous and make our own decisions Regarding ethical research guidelines, the American Sociological Association states that researchers 1. must disclose their sources of funding Selected Answer: True Question 12 Sociologists cannot precisely predict any person's behavior because _____ Selected Answer: human behavior is highly complex and has many causes. d. Sociologists must understand the meaning people attach to their actions. Two variables are said to display correlation if: The sociologist who called on his colleagues to be value free was: Sociologists cannot precisely predict any person's behavior because: A. humans may respond to the presence of an observer in unexpected way. Sociologists cannot precisely predict any person's behavior because: a. human behavior is highly complex and has many causes. 3. When sociologists group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine. They use research methods to design a study—perhaps a detailed, systematic, scientific method for conducting research and obtaining data, or perhaps an ethnographic study utilizing an interpretive framework. We report the results of two experiments in which we study the outcomes for 48 songs by different bands (18). In the process of measurement, reliability refers to: Whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results. It also seeks to predict the future behavior of people. Although sociologists usually do not make decisions on how society should be changed or people treated, sociologists provide valuable research data that can be used by authorities who do make such decisions. When Cooley used the term "looking-glass self," he was referring to the fact that: People see themselves as they think others see them. Social patterns change. It looks like your browser needs an update. An individual ma… b. - Because humans respond to their surroundings, the mere presence of a researcher may affect the behavior being studied. ADVERTISEMENTS: The objections against sociology being called a science are as follows: Many contemporary sociologists maintain that sociology cannot attain the status of science. 4. […] What is the term for the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together constitute a people's away of life? To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. Sociologists use the term empirical evidence to refer to. That is both the fascination and the frustration of sociology. A smaller number of people used to represent an entire population is called a: In a questionnaire, the question, "Please express your opinion about the threat of terrorist attacks at home," is example of which of the following? Personality drives behavior within individuals, because it is the major motivational element. The Id is responsible for all needs and urges, superego for ideals in my moral, the ego moderates between the demands of the Id, ego, and super ego. (Individual human being is considered to be responsible for acts he/she conducted) 2. b. Lack of experimentation: The term science as used for physical sciences includes the twin processes of experiment and prediction. Oh no! focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior: Term. Class conflict drives social change. Today, most immigrants to the Unites States arrive from: Campus poets, computer nerds, and jazz musicians all display___ patterns, Cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held. Not surprisingly, conflict explanations have sparked much controversy (Akers & Sellers, 2008). According to Ervin Goffman, the goal of a total institution is: To radically alter a person's personality or behavior. The sociological problem is to be able to see society as: a dimension of experience characterized by regular and predictable patterns of behaviour that exist independently of any specific individual’s desires or self-understanding. Jean Piaget's called the level of development at which individuals first use language and other cultural symbols the ___ stage. Which theoretical paradigm is closer to the work of early sociologists Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim? T or F: Barbara Ehrenreich, Who tried to live working at low-wage jobs, found that most of her coworkers were able to move ahead to better paying work: Which of the following earlier sociologists had an important influence on the development of the social conflict approach, Harriet Martineau, Jane Adams, Ida Wells, Barton, or do bois, Which of the following is the best example of the latent function of going to college, Keeping young people out of labor force, which may not have jobs for them, T or F: The goal of the structural-functional approach is not simply to understand how society operates but to reduce social inequality, Which theoretical approach claims that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what meaning the attached their behavior, The framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of any quality that generates conflict and change is the, T or F: The sociologist recognizes that there are various kinds of truth, Sociologists use the term empirical evidence to refer to, information we can verify with our senses, T or F: A variable that is changed by another variable is called the independent variable, What concept below refers to measuring exactly what one and tends to measure, And apparent although false association between two variables that is caused by some third variable is called, The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher, Sociologist cannot precisely predict any person's behavior because, What term refers to any changing the subject behavior that is caused by the awareness of being studied, Which research method asks of subjects to respond to a series of items and a questionnaire or interview, A smaller number of people used to represent an entire population is called, What is the term for beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together make up a peoples way of life, Cars, computers, and iPhones are all examples of which of the following, The fact that some married men and married women are sexually unfaithful to their spouse is an example of ____ culture, while the fact that most adults say they support the idea of sexual fidelity is an example of ___ culture, Standards by which people who shared culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called. ... Sociologist cannot precisely predict any person's behavior because. Some people still have doubts as to whether social behaviour is really capable of being treated scientifically. The functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. Sociology is fascinating because no matter how much sociologists are able to predict people’s behavior, attitudes, and life chances, many people will not fit the predictions. This is not a chapter on statistics nor does it detail specific methods in sociological investigation. A number of theories have tried to explain why people take part in deviant behavior, which is defined as any behavior that goes against the dominant norms of society.Biological explanations, psychological reasons, and sociological factors have all been linked to such behavior, but three of the major biological explanations for deviancy have been discredited. The individual is the primary unit of analysis. Which sociological research method saves the time and expenses of data gathering, but the researcher has no control over possible data bias? -Human behavior is too complex to allow sociologists to predict precisely any individual’s actions. Their objections against sociology being called a science are the following: 1. Because profit becomes so important, people in a capitalist society are more likely than those in noncapitalist ones to break the law for profit and other gains, even if their behavior hurts others. Scientific sociology: Definition. The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was: In the US today, the suicide rate is highest for which category of people noted below? e. This thinker translated the work of Comte into English and wrote the first book on sociological method. That is both the fascination and the frustration of sociology. Every aspect of human behavior is a source of possible investigation. Sociologists question the world that humans have created and live in. For one group of Sociologists Sociology is a science because Sociology adopts and applies the scientific method. Definition. Altruism and Indirect Reciprocity: The Interaction of Person and Situation in Prosocial Behavior Abstract A persistent puzzle in the social and biological sciences is the existence of prosocial behavior, actions that benefit others, often at a cost to oneself. Key areas of focus include sensation and perception, motivated behavior (such as hunger, thirst, and sex), control of movement, learning and memory, sleep and biological rhythms, and emotion. People perceive the world through the cultural lens of language, Standards by which people who share culture define hat is desirable, goo, and beautiful are called. For every sociological generalization, there are many exceptions. Understanding the individuals who make up a group enables sociologists to predict group behavior. However, the failure of personality traits to consistently predict actual human behavior in experiments throughout decades of research was discouraging, and, … A. humans may respond to the presence of an observer in unexpected way. Sociology is fascinating because no matter how much sociologists are able to predict people’s behavior, attitudes, and life chances, many people will not fit the predictions. They notice patterns of behavior as people … While most of today's sociologists agree with Auguste Comte that science is a crucial part of sociology, we also recognized that: A. human beings are partly creative and spontaneous. Because all behavior is controlled by the central nervous system, biopsychologists seek to understand how the brain functions in order to understand behavior. What term refers to any changing the subject behavior that is caused by the awareness of being studied. In Sociology, as we have discussed earlier it is not possible to have the laboratory method because the raw material of sociological investigation is human being for whom it is not possible to live within certain fixed conditions. Which sociological research method provides the best chance to understand social behavior in a natural setting? Social patterns change; what is true in one time or place may not hold true in another. There are several fundamental assumptions, that are common for all the psychological approaches to criminal behavior. Patterns of socialization vary by class; in child-rearing, lower-class parents stress ___, while well-to-do parents stress____. At the same time, a society is nothing but the ongoing social relationships and activities of specific individuals. The language spoken by people in more nations of the world than any other is: Which of the following most closely conveys the point of the Sapir-Whorf thesis? False Preparing for an interview by learning about the company, polishing one’s shoes, and purchasing something new to wear would all be considered examples of ____. f. Which of the following is a way in which people can mislead others with statistics? The statement, "People are fat because they are lazy. B. human behavior is highly complex and has many causes C. Social patterns that are found in one time an place may … The fact that some married men and married women are sexually unfaithful to their spouses is an example of __ culture, while the facts that most adults acknowledge the importance of sexual fidelity is an example of___ culture. The idea that the social world guides our actions and life choices just as the seasons influence activities of choice of clothing describes: By stating that the sociological perspective shows us "the strange and the familiar," the text argues that sociologists, The chapters sociological analysis of childbearing around the world suggests that the number of children born to a woman reflects, Whether she lives and a poor or rich society, The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide and Europe was. As a result two opposite views are available about the nature of Sociology. Carol Gilligan's work on the issue of self-esteem in girls showed that: Girls begin with high levels of self-esteem, but it gradually decreases as they go through adolescence. In his [Harper’s] position, there is a disjunction between taking a strong political and moral stance on violence on one hand and working towards a deeper, evidence-based understanding of the s… sure of quality can precisely predict success in any particular realization of the process. Researchers must always perform their research several times in order to ensure its accuracy. Sociologists claim the main reason that many young people in the US experience adolescence as a time of confusion is: Cultural inconsistency in defining this stage of life as partly childlike an partly adultlike. The dominant value of U.S culture share which of the following? Question 9 Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview? Family is important to the socialization process because: A. families give children social identity in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion. The practice of persons from one culture judging any other culture by its own standards is called: A Marxist analysis of U.S culture suggests that our competitive and individualistic values reflect: What is the term for a person's fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking, and feeling? The social sciences, including sociology, developed based on the idea that: Which perspective developed by the psychologist John B Watson claims human behavior is not instinctive but learned within a social environment? As you record the data, you are using the concept "age" as: What term refers to the arithmetic average of a series of numbers? The Hawthorne effect. a. the experiment b. the survey c. participant observation d. secondary analysis 40. But sociology is frustrating for the same reason. c. The division of labor has social and moral consequences. Perhaps due to this Sociologists got divided among themselves into two opposite groups. In an unfortunate comment following the Boston Marathon bombing in April 2013, the then Prime Minister Stephen Harper said “this is not a time to commit sociology.” He implied that the “utter condemnation of this kind of violence” precludeddrawing on sociological research into the causes of political violence (Cohen, 2013). It looks like your browser needs an update. Perhaps continue to confuse the mind of Sociologists since long. These are the following: 1. The theoretical paradigm in sociology that assumes society is a complex system who're parts work together to promote solidarity and stability is the: Herbert Spencer described human society as having much in common with: The "framework for building theory that sees society as an area of in quality that generates conflicts and change" is the: The sociological perspective reveals that: Much of what passes for "common sense" in the united states turns out to be at least partly wrong. 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