[145], In September Captain John P. Bankhead received orders to take command of Monitor, relieving Stevens, and was sent to Hampton Roads to take charge of the vessel. [72], During the "boom time" of the Civil War, Ericsson could have made a fortune with his inventions used in Monitor, but instead gave the U.S. government all his Monitor patent rights saying it was his "contribution to the glorious Union cause".[73]. [102] In Monitor Worden was already at his station in the pilot house while Greene took command of the turret. [37] The gap between the turret and the deck proved to be a problem as debris and shell fragments entered the gap and jammed the turrets of several Passaic-class monitors, which used the same turret design, during the First Battle of Charleston Harbor in April 1863. The Monitor had battled the CSS Virginia in March of that year in the first battle of ironclad warships at Hampton Roads, VA. Unlike previous warships it was made primarily of steels and it … Welles later recorded in his memoirs that "Mrs. Louvestre encountered no small risk in bringing this information ...". Before Monitor could reach Hampton Roads, the Confederate ironclad had already destroyed the sail frigates USS Cumberland and USS Congress and had run the steam frigate USS Minnesota aground. [a] Monitor played a central role in the Battle of Hampton Roads on 9 March under the command of Lieutenant John L. Worden, where she fought the casemate ironclad CSS Virginia (built on the hull of the scuttled steam frigate USS Merrimack) to a standstill.      I am too unwell to dictate more than a short sad answer to your note. Right when the Worthington pump could no longer keep pace with the flooding, a call came from the engine room that water was gaining there. [33][34] A pair of steam-powered donkey engines rotated the turret through a set of gears; a full rotation was made in 22.5 seconds during testing on 9 February 1862. The USS Rhode Island in the background launches rescue boats. [80], Living quarters for the senior officers consisted of eight separate well-furnished cabins, each provided with a small oak table and chair, an oil lamp, shelves and drawers and a canvas floor covering covered with a rug. Francis Butts recalled that Engineer Samuel A. Lewis was too seasick to leave his berth. Monitor was also unable to do significant damage to Virginia, possibly because her guns were firing with reduced charges, on advice from Commander John Dahlgren, the gun's designer, who lacked the "preliminary information" needed to determine what amount of charge was needed to "pierce, dislocate or dislodge iron plates" of various thicknesses and configurations. Gager. [19][70] Because Monitor was an experimental craft, urgently needed, hurriedly constructed and almost immediately put to sea, a number of problems were discovered during her maiden voyage to Hampton Roads and during the battle there. [133] Furthermore, Vanderbilt was in position to ram Virginia if she approached the fort. Valve problems with the main engine and one of the fan engines prevented her from reaching the Brooklyn Navy Yard from Bushwick Inlet and she had to be towed there the next day. The engines were slowed to preserve steam for the pumps. The board required a guarantee from Bushnell that his ship would float despite the weight of its armor[16] and Cornelius H. DeLamater of New York City recommended that Bushnell consult with his friend Ericsson. Monitor sinks in a storm off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Acting Assistant Surgeon Daniel C. Logue. [154][157] Stanchions were also installed around the perimeter of the freeboard with a rope strung through each making it safer to walk about the deck amid stormy weather and rough seas. Many of the men were on top of the turret. Upon mustering the crew upon the Rhode Island, John Bankhead found the following men missing: Standing, top row, left to right: Each gun was crewed by eight men. [139][140] Monitor was of little help in the assault because the confinement and small gun ports of her turret would not allow her to elevate her guns sufficiently to engage the Confederate batteries at close range, so she had to fall back and fire at a greater distance,[140] while the other gunboats were unable to overcome the fortifications on their own. Master's Mate George Fredrickson returned a watch he had borrowed from another officer, saying, "Here, this is yours; I may be lost." SEE THE GREENPOINT MONITOR MUSEUM'S LEGACY GRANT PRE-PROPOSAL [219] The battle was also dramatized in the 1991 made-for-television movie Ironclads, produced by Ted Turner. [20], The three ironclad ships selected differed substantially in design and degree of risk. The use of heavy iron plating on the sides of warships was not practical until steam propulsion matured enough to carry its great weight. Saturation diving was evaluated by the Navy that dive season on Monitor and proved to be very successful, allowing divers to maximize their time on the bottom. Acting Assistant Paymaster William F. Keeler; Weeks recalled, "Some sang as they worked, and... the voices, mingling with the roar of the waters, sounded like a defiance to Ocean.". [82] Other crew members were interviewed later in life, like Louis N. Stodder, one of the last crew members to abandon Monitor minutes before she sank in a storm at sea,[83] who was the last surviving crew member of Monitor and lived well into the 20th century. [103] Samuel Howard, Acting Master of Minnesota, who was familiar with Hampton Roads with its varying depths and shallow areas, had volunteered to be the pilot the night before and thus was accepted, while Quarter Master Peter Williams steered the vessel throughout the battle (Williams was later awarded the Medal of Honor for this act). [176] Four years later, Robert F. Marx claimed to have discovered the wreck based on the idea she had drifted into shallow water north of the lighthouse before sinking. [179], These photos revealed that the wreck was disintegrating and the discovery raised another issue. His modification proved to be successful during trials on 4 March. Figure 1: The sinking of USS Monitor, 31 December 1862, as depicted in Harper’s Weekly Magazine, January 1862 The following account appeared in the Baltimore American on January 5, 1863. Stodder managed to hang onto the safety lines around the deck and finally cut through the 13 in (33 cm) towline with a hatchet. Reed gave these ships a superstructure to increase seaworthiness and raise the freeboard of the gun turrets so they could be worked in all weathers. ", Stevens previously served as commander of, In the actual engravings the men's names are inscribed below those of the ships' names. Since there was no pressing need for such a ship at the time, there was little demand to continue work on the unfinished vessel. A memorial to Monitor and her lost crew members was erected in the Civil War section of Hampton National Cemetery by NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, together with the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, and dedicated on 29 December 2012. The divers discovered one skeleton in the turret on 26 July before the lift and spent a week carefully chipping about half of it free of the concreted debris; the other half was inaccessible underneath the rear of one of the guns. A small armored pilot house was fitted on the upper deck towards the bow, however, its position prevented Monitor from firing her guns straight forward. [162] Water continued flooding into the vents and ports and the ship began rolling uncontrollably in the high seas. [38] When not in use, the turret rested on a brass ring on the deck that was intended to form a watertight seal. Realizing that raising the whole wreck was impractical for financial reasons as well as the inability to bring up the wreck intact, NOAA developed a comprehensive plan to recover the most significant parts of the ship, namely her engine, propeller, guns, and turret. [94] Washington was immediately informed of the dire situation after the initial battle. The Federal ships retired slowly to Fort Monroe, hoping to lure Virginia into the Roads. [19] On 15 September, after further deliberations, the board accepted Ericsson's proposal. [104][105] The speaking tube used to communicate between the pilothouse and the turret had broken early in the action so Keeler and Toffey had to relay commands from Worden to Greene. Almost 100 days later, on January 30, 1862, the USS Monitor was launched into the East River. Maine. When Worden, with part of his face blackened from the wounds he received at Hampton Roads, came aboard, the heavy guns in the navy yard were fired in salute. Then, turning back to the Rhode Island, they were horrified to see her "...steaming away from us, throwing up rockets and burning blue lights – leaving us behind." This site is for historic purposes and is no longer updated. ", "Civil War sailors laid to rest 150 years later", "Northrop Grumman Employees Reconstruct History with USS Monitor Replica", "Vandal covers B'klyn Civil War statue in white paint", "Titus Andronicus- The Making of the Monitor Pt 1", "Black Dispatches: Black American Contributions to Union Intelligence During the Civil War", "1998 NOAA Research Expedition to the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary", "Last Voyage of the Monitor: December 24th – Forward", "An Eye-Witness Account of the Battle Between the U.S.S. Desperate men had to cling to the top of the turret until the lifeboats returned. [189] The surface-supplied divers evaluated the use of heliox due to the depth of the wreck. Weeks to Jacob’s sister, Antionette Nicklis, just a few days after the loss of the Monitor and her brother: ‘To Miss Antoinette Nicklis, There were also artillery batteries at Fort Darling overlooking and guarding the approach, along with other heavy guns and sharpshooters positioned along the river banks. [154][155], While Monitor was undergoing repairs her crew was put aboard USS King Philip and were eventually granted a furlough by Bankhead who himself went on leave. [191], With Tropical Storm Cristobal bearing down on the recovery team, and time and money running out,[192] the team made the decision to raise the turret on 5 August 2002, after 41 days of work, and the gun turret broke the surface at 5:30 pm to the cheers of everyone aboard Wotan and other recovery ships nearby. One fan circulated air throughout the ship, but the other one forced air through the boilers, which depended on this forced draught. The force had instructions to coordinate their efforts with McClellan's forces on land and push on towards Richmond to bombard the city into surrender if possible. [209], In 1995 the U.S. The ship was lost during rough seas. Reed took advantage of the lack of masts and designed the ships with one twin-gun turret at each end of the superstructure, each able to turn and fire in a 270° arc. (Courtesy Monitor Collection, NOAA), Louis N. Stodder. Monitor's wreck was discovered in 1973 and has been partially salvaged. [147] To make the vessel more seaworthy, a 30-foot (9 m) funnel-shaped smokestack was placed over the smoke outlet while taller fresh air vents were installed. Leaks were beginning to appear everywhere. For a more detailed account of the sinking of the Monitor, visit The Mariners' Museum website, Red signal lantern recovered from the Monitor wreck site and conserved at The Mariners' Museum. Featured on the album's sleeve are the crewmen of Monitor, taken from a tintype portrait. Bankhead ordered the engineers to start the Worthington pumps, which temporarily stemmed the rising waters, but soon Monitor was hit by a squall and a series of violent waves and water continued to work its way into the vessel. Picked up by the schooner A. Colby the following day, Browne and his crew returned to the Rhode Island to be greeted by "hearty cheers.". [43], The turret was intended to mount a pair of 15-inch (380 mm) smoothbore Dahlgren guns, but they were not ready in time and 11-inch (280 mm) guns were substituted. It was well furnished with an oriental rug, a large oak table and other such items. [56] Chief Engineer Alban C. Stimers, who once served aboard Merrimack,[57][58] was appointed Superintendent of the ship while she was undergoing construction. Monitor sinks in a storm off, North Carolina. Lieutenant Samuel Dana Greene; Bankhead reportedly said, "It is madness to remain here any longer ... let each man save himself." Virginia fired a few shots ineffectively at very long range, while Monitor returned fire while remaining near Fort Monroe, ready to fight if Virginia came to attack the Federal force congregated there. Concealed in her dress was a message from a Union sympathizer who worked in the Navy Yard warning that the former Merrimack, renamed Virginia by the Confederates, was nearing completion. Both ships were constantly in motion, maintaining a circular pattern. The situation below deck was serious. Stream, the Monitor is swept by strong, opposing currents that frequently generate sudden and severe storms. It was dedicated on 6 November 1938. The impetus to build Monitor was prompted by the news that the Confederates were building an iron-plated armored vessel named the Virginia in the old Federal naval shipyard at Gosport, near Norfolk, that could effectively engage the Union ships blockading Hampton Roads harbor and the James River leading northwest to Richmond (capital of the Confederacy). The growing number of relics required conservation and a proper home so the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in charge of all U.S. marine sanctuaries, selected the Mariners' Museum on 9 March 1987 after considering proposals from several other institutions. Without any assistance, the task force got within 8 mi (13 km) of the Confederate capital but could not proceed further because of sunken vessels and debris placed in the river that blocked further passage. Sometimes she would drop into a wave with such force the entire hull would tremble. [9], Word of Merrimack's reconstruction and conversion was confirmed in the North in late February 1862 when Mary Louvestre of Norfolk, a freed slave who worked as a housekeeper for one of the Confederate engineers working on Merrimack,[10] made her way through Confederate lines with news that the Confederates were building an ironclad warship. [172] After his initial recovery, Bankhead filed his official report, as did the commanding officers of the Rhode Island, stating officers and men of both Monitor and Rhode Island did everything within their ability to keep Monitor from sinking. On this day the USS Monitor, a truly revolutionary ship in naval architecture, sank in a storm off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. [86] Both Newton and Stimers worked desperately to get the blowers to work, but they too succumbed to the noxious fumes and were taken above. Special Events "EVENT ARCHIVES" 19.5 Million Greenpoint Community Environmental Fund. Construction immediately began at the Continental Ironworks in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, N.Y. [m] Additional iron plates were installed covering the dents from the previous battles. Ericsson originally intended to use either six 1-inch plates or a single outer 4-inch (100 mm) plate backed by three 3⁄4-inch (19 mm) plates, but the thicker plate required too much time to roll. [151], Upon arrival at Washington Monitor and her crew were greeted by a crowd of thousands of cheering admirers who came to see the ship that "saved the nation". It estimated that the plan would cost over 20 million dollars to implement over four years. There are conflicting accounts as to whether such an anti-personnel provision was installed. The divers prepared the turret roof for the first stage of the lift by excavating underneath the turret and placed steel beams and angle irons to reinforce it for its move onto a lifting platform for the second stage. [15][c], Ericsson originally made no submission to the board, but became involved when Cornelius Bushnell, the sponsor of the proposal that became the armored sloop USS Galena, needed to have his design reviewed by a naval constructor. [185][186], Initial efforts in 1995 by Navy and NOAA divers to raise the warship's propeller were foiled by an abnormally stormy season off Cape Hatteras. [217] Reed later developed the design into the Devastation class, the first ocean-going turret ships without masts, the direct ancestors of the pre-dreadnought battleships and the dreadnoughts. Forty-seven men were rescued from the USS Monitor before she slipped beneath the waves. During this second meeting, Ericsson showed Bushnell a model of his own design, the future Monitor, derived from his 1854 design. A technological marvel in its day, the vessel was designed and built by John Ericsson, a Swedish inventor. USS MONITOR sinking during a heavy storm off Cape Hatteras with the loss of sixteen men on 31 December 1862. He then ordered the towline cut and called for volunteers,[163] Stodder, along with crewmates John Stocking,[164] and James Fenwick volunteered and climbed down from the turret, but eyewitnesses said that as soon as they were on the deck Fenwick and Stocking were quickly swept overboard and drowned. Their task was to "examine plans for the completion of iron-clad vessels" and consider its costs. In developing the ship, Ericsson obtained 240 patents for equipment, including 45 related just to its turret. When the temperamental Stanton learned that Monitor had only two guns he expressed contempt and rage as he paced back and forth, further increasing the anxiety and despair among members of the meeting. [61] The name "Monitor", meaning "one who admonishes and corrects wrongdoers",[53] was proposed by Ericsson on 20 January 1862 and approved by Assistant Secretary of the Navy Gustavus Fox. [54], Preliminary work had begun well before that date, however, and Ericsson's consortium contracted with Thomas F. Rowland of the Continental Iron Works at Bushwick Inlet (in modern-day Greenpoint, Brooklyn) on 25 October for construction of Monitor's hull. [25] The most prominent feature on the vessel was a large cylindrical gun turret mounted amidships above the low-freeboard upper hull, also called the "raft". The original officers at the time of Monitor's commissioning were: Four of the officers were Line officers and responsible for the handling of the vessel and operation of guns during battle, while the engineering officers were considered a class unto themselves. [113][114] However, neither vessel was able to sink or seriously damage the other. The entire crew were given goat-skin mats to sleep on. The sinking of the USS Maine, the use of yellow press journalism, and the national uproar and motivation is what drove the Americans to victory. Assistant Secretary Fox, who observed the entire battle from aboard Minnesota, came aboard Monitor and jokingly told her officers, "Well gentlemen, you don't look as though you just went through one of the greatest naval conflicts on record". But we lack almost the preliminary information indispensable to commence with. The Confederates were also celebrating what they considered a victory, as crowds of spectators gathered along the banks of the Elizabeth River, cheering and waving flags, handkerchiefs and hats as Virginia, displaying the captured ensign of Congress, passed along up the river. During this time the two Dahlgren guns were each engraved with large letters, MONITOR & MERRIMAC – WORDEN and MONITOR & MERRIMAC – ERICSSON, respectively. [121] At the time the pilothouse was struck Worden's injury was only known to those in the pilothouse and immediately nearby. "[108], Monitor, to the surprise of Virginia's crew, had emerged from behind Minnesota and positioned herself between her and the grounded ship, preventing the Confederate ironclad from further engaging the vulnerable wooden ship at close range. [201], Conservation of the propeller was completed nearly three years after its recovery and it is on display in the Monitor Center at the Mariners' Museum. At Fox's request, Worden gave a speech to the gathering about his voyage from New York to Hampton Roads, the trials they were faced with along the way and of the great battle between Monitor and Virginia, while paying tribute to many of the officers and men involved. [174], The Navy tested an "underwater locator" in August 1949 by searching an area south of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse for the wreck of Monitor. At midnight, Ensign William Rodgers launched the third boat from the Rhode Island. By November the ship was fully repaired and ready to return to service. Bankhead "signalized several times to the Rhode Island to stop." John Bankhead returned to his cabin for his coat, and other small personal possessions. Water had also reached the coalbunkers, and the coal was growing too wet to keep up the steam in the engines. The company bought the SS United States for a whooping 100 Million dollars, and was returned to service and made its first voyage in 2015. [46] The two innermost plates were riveted together while the outer plates were bolted to the inner ones. i.e. Singer/guitarist Patrick Stickles commented while making the album that he was inspired by Ken Burns's The Civil War and the ship itself so much that he decided to name Titus Andronicus's second album in its honor. The sonar images did not match what they expected the wreck to look like until they realized that the sinking vessel had turned over while descending and was resting at the bottom upside down. In closing he gave special thanks to Ericsson, Lincoln, Welles and all who made construction of Monitor possible. [118], Towards the end of the engagement, Worden directed Williams to steer Monitor around the stern of Confederate ironclad, where Lieutenant Wood fired Virginia's 7-inch Brooke gun at Monitor's pilothouse, striking the forward side directly beneath the sight hold, cracking the structural "iron log" along the base of the narrow opening just as Worden was peering out. Navy Vessels: The USS Monitor Essay 716 Words | 3 Pages. Taken by surprise, he hesitated briefly and was undecided as to what action to take next,[120] but after assessing the damage soon ordered Monitor to return to the battle area.[107][118][122]. A large, eight-legged lifting frame, nicknamed the "spider", was carefully positioned over the turret to move it onto the platform and the entire affair would be lifted by the crane mounted on the Wotan. 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