Cynthia Werner, Mobility, Immobility and Return Migration: The Impact  of Transnational Migration on the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. The governments of each country sought to collective and sedentarize the nomadic populations under socialism.  The Kazakh population is concentrated in the western province of Bayan-Ulgii, a region physically separated from Kazakhstan by a 47-60 km mountainous stretch of Chinese and Russian territory. 2010. While successful middle-aged business owners and herders are relatively satisfied with life in Mongolia, their children consider attending university in Mongolia, especially Ulaanbaatar, or Kazakhstan. and Werner, C.A.  Selectivity of migration increased during this period as well, reflecting both the increasing complexity as well as increased information flowing between Kazakhstan and Mongolia, leading to fewer new migrants during this period. Mainstream media propagates that both ethnic Uyghurs… Transnational Migration, Local Economic Change and the Persistence and Adaptation of Rural Livelihoods: A Case Study of the Kazakh Diaspora in Western Mongolia. In Mongolia today, when Kazakhs refer to homeland, they use tugan jer to indicate native land and atameken and atajurt12 for ancestral homeland or motherland.  In 1991 Kazakhstan passed the Resolution “On the Procedures and Conditions of the Relocation to Kazakh SSR for Persons of Kazakh Ethnicity from Other Republics and Abroad Willing to Work in Rural Areas.” In 1992, the quota system for Kazakhs repatriating to Kazakhstan was created through the 1992 Law on Immigration. Nagoya, Japan August 2013. Cawley, M. Bicalho, A.M.S.M., and Laurens, L. Galway National University Press, pp.143-151. 1863-1890.  “Implications of Transnational Migration for Mongolian Kazakhs.”  Human Geography of Global Issues, GEOG111, February, 2009. Barcus, Holly. August 1-7. Physiographically, Mongolia and Kazakhstan are largely comprised of grassland steppe, although both countries also contain other eco-regions including deserts, mountains and forests. Barcus, H. Guest lecture. During the summers of 2006, 2008, and 2009 we conducted interviews in Ulgii and in several rural locations across the province. This website provides an overview of our work during the 2004-2010 period and the people who have helped us understand the dynamic relationships between gender, economics, identity, and geo-politics that shape the complex decision-making processes and outcomes of transnational migration in this region.  At the time of our study, it had a population of nearly 2.8 million people with a population density of less than 2 people per square km. Barcus, H.R. In the 19th century an increasing number of Kazakhs along the borders began to plant some crops. $4,615. Invited Lecture. Kazakhs (Qazaqs, Kazaks) are a Turkic-speaking people living in several modern countries including (but not limited to) Kazakhstan, China, and Mongolia. She currently serves as a board member for the American Center for Mongolian Studies, and on the editorial board of the Journal of Rural Studies (updated June 2018). Migration decision-making, culture, and trans-national identities: A case study of the Mongolian Kazakh diaspora. Her research focuses on the links between culture, gender, and the economy, with special focus on the region of Central Asia. Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. 2009 The Kazakhs of Western Mongolia: Transnational Migration from 1990-2008. 2015. One of the primary analytical and mapping tools that she uses in her research is a Geographic Information System; an invaluable tool for assessing spatial patterns and evaluating the underlying processes and factors that influence change at multiple scales.  For most herding households, this means that the household will move their herds, largely comprised of sheep and goats, although also containing variously camels, horses and yaks, to different pastures for each of the four seasons. American Anthropological Association 107th Annual Meeting. Migration Letters 6(1):49-62. 2013. “Place Identity and Immobility Choices among Ethnic Minorities: Transitioning Landscapes in a Transnational Community”, Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, CA, April 2013. Others will move up to four times, depending on the quality of the pasture in a given year. 2009 Werner, C, Emmelhainz, C.*, H. Barcus. Werner, C., H. R. Barcus, N. Brede*.  During this period, Mongolia shifted from a communist to a democratic form of governance and from a command to a capitalist economy. Kazakhs are a proud people, intent on maintaining their culture, religion, and way of life. 651-696-6000, Parents & In real life, eagle hunting is a tradition among the Kazakh nomads that is practiced throughout the year. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Invited Lecture. Women’s Studies Brown Bag Lecture. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: singular: Қазақ, Qazaq,, plural: Қазақтар, Qazaqtar, ; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly inhabit the Ural Mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Russia, Uzbekistan, Mongolia and China), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent. Before the fall of the USSR, few Mongolian Kazakhs had ever visited the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, but in the post-Soviet context the creation of new nation states and national borders, relaxation of restrictions on movement and opening of borders between east and west, new population movements have emerged. Students, Connect with Presentations at Professional Conferences. In the 19th century, the advance of the Russian Empire troops pushed Kazakhs to neighboring countries. Mongolia and Kazakhstan living comparison. Most Kazakh Mongolians speak Kazakh and are Muslim; some never learn the Mongolian … Many Mongolian Kazakhs also send children to work or to school in Ulaanbaatar, where there is a growing population of Kazakhs. She worked as a research assistant on this project from May 2009-May 2010, studying issues of citizenship and the state in the migration of Mongolian Kazakhs. Government efforts were more successful in Kazakhstan, however, in Mongolia the government did not successfully collective the nomads until the 1950s.  Like the other programs, this program continues to offer incentives to oralmander for immigration, however, this program targets particular settlement areas, specifically in the northern regions of Kazakhstan. Werner, Cynthia and Celia Emmelhainz. Migration Decision-Making, Culture, and Trans-National Identities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. DOI: 10.1080/09668136.2017.1401042. What benefits does the government of Kazakhstan provide? The Kazakhs emerged in the 15th century from an amalgam of Turkic tribes who entered Transoxiana about the 8th century and of Mongols who entered the area in the 13th century. Barcus. Barcus, H.R. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. What does it mean to be semi-nomadic?  Quotas overall were quite low during this period, reflecting changes in Kazakhstan’s economy and demographics. and C. Werner. 2008 At the end of the 20th century there were roughly 7,600,000 in Kazakhstan and about 1,200,000 in China (mainly in Sinkiang), with small numbers in Uzbekistan, Russia, and Mongolia.  Implications of Transnational Migration for Mongolian Kazakhs. Hides provided clothing, containers, and thongs; horsehair was braided into rope, while horn was used for ladles and other utensils. Eds.  Oralman status, entitles migrants to basic types of assistance, such as medical, employment, language and education assistance at both the primary and secondary levels. Barcus Holly. Kazakh herding families in Mongolia today are considered semi-nomadic. 2013. “Place identity and immobility choices among ethnic minorities: Transitioning landscapes in a transnational community” 21st Colloquium of the Consortium for Sustainable Rural Systems, International Geographical Union. Stipendiary Fellow, Glasscock Center for Humanities Research, Texas A&M, 2008-09; “Mobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhs” (Anthropology Department fellow). Central Asian Survey 32(4):527-541. 2009.  Nomadic pastoralism has been the primary form of human subsistence for centuries. International Research and Travel Grant, International Programs, Texas A&M, 2008; “Mobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhs”, Werner. The Kazakh ethnic group makes up around 90% of the population of Mongolia's Bayan-Olgi province, with around 100,000 Kazakhs spread thinly across the wilderness. Few realize, however, that ethnic Kazakhs have also been subjected to the same mass extermination and forced labor. Mongolia is a landlocked country wedged between two regional giants – Russia and China. She now researches scholarly communications, research data management, and librarian professionalization in America and Kazakhstan (updated June 2018). Immigration to Kazakhstan for oralmandar continued to evolve during the middle transition years (1997-2002) with a new legal framework and changing annual quotas. Barcus, H. Invited Lecture. 2013. Barcus, H. Invited Guest Lecture. April 2007. The Kazakhstan government during the study period was not putting limits on the number of non-quota migrants who enter Kazakhstan, however, the quota levels themselves fluctuate annually. A limited amount of precipitation creates arid, non-arable pasture lands that historically have been utilized for livestock herding. Dzungaria was subjected to mass Kazakh settlement after the defeat of the Dzungars. 2011. She worked as a research assistant with this project from May 2006 to July 2010. Most live in Bayan-Olgii Aimag, where they make up 90% of the inhabitants. University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 2015. Stan Brunn. March 6, 2009.  The nomadic economy is strongly influenced by traditional gender roles – men herd, women cook, care for children and prepare textiles. 8-10 April 2010. Brede, Namara*, Holly R. Barcus, Cynthia Werner.  These political shifts significantly transformed cultural practices and economic structures within the two countries. ELLA KELLEHER WRITES — Many are already aware of how the Uyghur people are interned at “reeducation” camps in Xinjiang, the Western province of China. Ed.  Under socialism in Mongolia (1924-1989), the pastoral economy was collectivized and modern education, health care and public infrastructure including social welfare policies were implemented. "Qazaqstan" TV channel and Kanat Beisekeyev present the first episode of “The Nomads" documentary series about the life and traditions of Kazakh immigrants. During the study period, local schools taught in either Mongolian or Kazakh (this has since changed). Mobility and Immobility in a Transnational Context: Changing Views of Migration Among the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. 1600 Grand AvenueSaint Paul, MN 55105-1899 USA Macalester College Barcus, Holly. Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia. In 2010, Mongolia's ethnic minority groups faced a number of challenges, as did the majority ethnic group, Khalks. About 3,200,000 people live in Mongolia. Most Kazakhs are now settled farmers who raise sheep and other livestock and grow crops.  She studied issues of migration policy of Kazakhstan and worked as a research assistant with this project from June 2006 and June 2008- 2009. February. Barcus, Holly. GEOFEST Minnesota. Barcus, Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Grant, Contemporary Mongolia Program; awarded through the University of Pittsburgh; 2004, “Population, Environment, and Geo-Spatial Technologies in Mongolia”, Werner, Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Grant, Contemporary Mongolia Program; awarded through the University of Pittsburgh; 2004 “Women’s Experiences in Mongolia”.  Macalester College. $1,000. Keynote Lecture for Internationalism Week.  The soum center of this arid and mountainous province is Ulgii, a town of approximately 30,000 people. Kazakhs from the Kazakh Khanates were among the peoples who moved into the depopulated Dzungaria.  She works in both the rural United States, specifically in Appalachia and the Great Plains, and in western rural Mongolia.  She is the Past-President of the Central Eurasian Studies Society (2012-15). Kazakhs account for only about 0.4% of Mongolia's population, while Mongolian ethnic groups make up 95%. Minnesota State University. The Kazakhs believe themselves to be descended from a progenitor who had three sons from whom sprang the main divisions of the Kazakhs: the Great, Middle, and Little hordes (ordas) that occupied the eastern, central, and western parts, respectively, of what became the Kazakh khanate and is now Kazakhstan. 2008. Admissions, For High Today, Bayan-Olgii has a distinctly Kazakh culture. Kazakhs constitute 1. The Kazakhs are the second most numerous Turkic-speaking people in Central Asia after the Uzbeks. 2009-10; “Mobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhs” (International Studies Program fellow). Negotiating Everyday Islam after Socialism: A Study of the Kazakhs of Bayan-Ulgii, Mongolia. Mobility and Immobility in a Transnational Context: Changing Views of Migration Among the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia.  Thus, changing economic circumstances in Kazakhstan and in Mongolia, combined with policy changes in Kazakhstan and changing perceptions of Mongolian Kazakhs about the benefits of moving to Kazakhstan begin to influence migration decisions during this period. The Kazakhs of western Mongolia are one of the world’s last surviving nomadic cultures. Werner, Cynthia and Holly R. Barcus. During this period, the quota declined from 3,000 families during the early transition period, to approximately 500 in 1999-2000, jumping again to 2,655 by 2002.  The Kazakh population is predominantly Muslim. 2008. Europe-Asia Studies: 69(10): 1557-1583. Population Most inhabitants of Mongolia live in the capital, Ulaanbaatar. Barcus. She is currently the Department Head in the Department of Anthropology at Texas A&M University (updated June 2018). There are around 100,000 Kazakhs in Western Mongolia, mostly in the semi autonomous province of Bayan-Ulgii.  By 1989, the Kazakh population grew to approximately 120,000 individuals. Those within the quota qualify for additional assistance, including housing, transportation of family and goods from origin to destination and a lump sum allowance for each family member.  Returning Home: Gender, Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. From 2006-2009, we worked to assess the migration situation of Mongolian Kazakhs. Thirdly, people are not trying to say Kazakhs have nothing to do with Mongol Empire or Genghis Khan/Chinggis Khan. Mid-Transition Years (1997-2002) Werner. Early Transition Years (1991-1996) Since 2006, we have been assessing the migration situation of Mongolian Kazakhs.  Asian Ethnicity 11(2):209-228. Barcus, Holly. 2012. “Kazakhstan is my homeland; Mongolia is my fatherland”: Considering the role of place identity and other cultural factors in shaping mobility and immobility decisions in a transnational community” Central Eurasian Studies Society Meeting. Besides the Mongols, Mongolia has one major non-Mongolian ethnic group, the Kazakhs. Scythians of Iran descent, (Also Sakas, Sarmatians, and Massagets). While nearly 1 million Mongolians were living in Ulaanbaatar, the remaining 1 million were dispersed across the country. Barcus, H. Invited Lecture: “Why do all the Yurts have Satellite Dishes? “Moving Towards the State: The Benefits of Economic Citizenship for Mongolia’s Kazakhs.” Society for Economic Anthropology Annual Meetings. Most families return to specific pastures year after year with use of that pasture being passed down through families. During the late transition period, the most important change to immigration programs offered by the Kazakhstan government was the introduction of the “Blessed Migration” program on January 1, 2009. Thus tugan jer has been used primarily in the context of the Ethnic Kazakhs number around 100,000 and are the largest minority in Mongolia. The Kazakh population is largely clustered in the far western province of Mongolia, Bayan-Ulgii Aimag, with the second and third largest clusters in Hovd Aimag and Ulaanbaatar. Although the majority consider themselves Muslim, a small but growing proportion practice basic Muslim tenets of Namaz and fasting during Ramadan. Barcus & Werner. She graduated from Mongolian National University in Linguistics and completed a Masters Degree in Real Estate Land Economics. Currently her research is focused on Central Asia and Mongolia-Kazakhstan’s relations in Institute of International Affairs of the MAS. The diet consisted largely of milk products supplemented by mutton. Werner, C. and H. R. Barcus. “Field Research Among the Kazakhs of Mongolia.” Kazakhstan State University.  When the USSR dismantled, 73 million people found themselves living outside the political unit that they viewed as their ethno-national homeland. But Kazakh does not have the difficulties that inflecting languages have with grammatical gender and multiple systems of declension and conjugation. 2012. “Kazakhstan is my homeland; Mongolia is my fatherland”: Considering the role of place identity and other cultural factors in shaping mobility and immobility decisions in a transnational community” Race, Ethnicity and Place Conference, Puerto Rico, October 2012. Contemporary Mongolia: Transitions, Development and Social Transformations. The Mongolian Kazakhs About nine percent of the ethnic Mongols come from the Durbet, Dariganga, and other clans.  While the pastoral economy plays an important role in the economy of Bayan-Ulgii, trade and tourism have also emerged as the border crossings between Mongolia and China and Russia have increased and as air transport and tourism have increased in Mongolia more generally. Approximately 94 percent of the population of Mongolia are ethnic Mongols, mainly from the Khalkha clan. 2007. Who are the Mongolian Kazakhs? Geoforum 56:119-128. Fermented mare’s milk (koumiss) and horse flesh were highly esteemed but usually available only to the prosperous. Land without Fences? 14-17 November 2008. University of Minnesota, 26 March 2010. Maribor, Slovenia. 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